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Thesis Introduction Sample | Theories' Strengths and Weaknesses

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Table 1.1: Employee wellness and participation theories

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Brief Description

  •  
  •  

Social ecological model (Bronfenbrenner 1994).

  • The framework describes how an individual’s behaviour is integrated in a network that is dynamic including; intrapersonal characteristics, interpersonal processes, organisational features, community features and public policy (Salihu et al. 2015).
  • The theory depicts that the Interaction between individual and the environment is reciprocal. An individual is influenced by his/her own environment and vice versa (Salihu et al. 2015).
  • Is a framework of working with children, young people and families to keep them at the centre of anything which is done to support and help them (Claire 2016).

 

  • Explains behaviour based on different levels of factors.
  • Designed to explain behaviour.
  • Designed for health promotion and education.
  • Supports policy and laws that regulate or support healthy practices.
  • The organisational level of the framework explains how rules regulations and structures constrain or promote behaviours.
  • Applies to the study considering a gym is a wellness intervention that is implemented to help and support individuals to keep a healthier life.

 

  • Does not generally apply to workers, applies only to children, young people and families in the social context.
  • Mainly looks at issues within the home and family context and not organisational issues.
  • Does not demonstrate how behaviour is shaped by the organisational environment.

Social cognitive theory (Bandura 1989).

  • Originally called the social learning theory (Bandura 1989).
  • It is positioned as a theory of human behaviour and is used to understand human behaviour in a variety of settings (Beauchamp et al. 2018).
  • Focuses on what people learn by observing others and how this may or may not impact their behaviours.

 

  • Designed to explain behaviour.
  • Used to explain physical activities
  • Handles inconsistencies in behavior easily
    Provides an accurate illustration explaining how behavior is learned.
  • It is optimistic, in a good way.
  • Easy to understand
  • Offers a way to integrate social and cognitive theories.
  • It allows and accounts for cognitive processes explaining a large number of behaviors.
  • Is a motivational theory.
  • Real world behavioral examples can be applied and can be quickly and easily administered.
  • Concerned with important human social behaviors.
  • An evolving theory that is open to change
  • Focus on important theoretical issues such as role of support or reward in learning.
  • Addresses how reinforcement and punishment as well as self efficacy affect how individuals work to attain a specific goal as well as motivation.

(Meissler 2012).

 

  • Does not clearly demonstrate how behaviour is shaped by the organisational environment.
  • Does not take into account physical and mental changes.
  • Doesn’t explain all behavior since thoughts and feelings are influenced by many internal and external behaviors.
  • Doesn’t explain behavioral differences.
  • Doesn’t take in account that what one person views as punishment/unsupportive, another person may view as a reward/supportive.
  • Does not explain why individuals respond differently to similar situation.
  • Ignores maturation as well as lifespan behavior changes.
  • Ignores hormonal responses and biological differences.

(Meissler 2012).

 

Human capital theory (Smith 1976).

  • A framework that examines the relationship between social-well being, education and economic growth (Netcoh 2016).
  • The theory indicates that expenditure made on job training, education and health are capital investments that are bound to produce social and economic returns at both the individual and societal level (Netcoh 2016).
  • Assumes that education and training leads to greater productivity that is translated to economic and work-related returns (Netcoh 2016).
  • Beneficial to the well being of individuals
  • Views people as important component to societal and economic wealth as well as individual and business wellbeing
  • Explains how improvement in human capital leads to increased wages, GDP as well as work related outputs
  • Helps researchers as well as policymakers understand the relationship between education and training as inputs and social and economic returns/ benefits as outputs.
  • It provides an important lens that one can use to understand how policy can be improved and developed to incentivize individuals’ investment in their own education.
  • Useful for answering questions on the kinds of investments that are most productive and understanding optimal levels of individual/social investments in education
  • Useful for understanding cost and benefits for individual investments in education
  • Useful for understanding types of policy interventions that reduce individual costs associated with educational investments.
  • Martinez 2018; Netcoh 2016).

 

  • View of human beings as objects productivity.
  • Assumes education increases productivity in the workplace resulting to higher earnings and work outputs
  • Provides little insight into the processes through which education and training are translated into productivity and higher wages.
  • Does not account to other factors that contribute to productivity at the workplace in terms of work outputs and wage increase.
  • Targets gender, race and class discrimination.

se of a single theoretical lens and

closed system modeling

se of a single theoretical lens and

closed system modelling

  • Use of a single theoretical lens as well as a closed system modelling
  • Marginson 2017; Martinez 2018; Netcoh 2016).

Job-demands resources theory (Demerouti et al. 2001).

  • The job-demands resource model assumes that assumes that the health and well-being of employees in an organization result from a balance between positive (resources) and negative (demands) job characteristics (Schaufeli and Taris 2014).
  • Represents a way of thinking about how job characteristics may influence employee health, well being and motivation (Schaufeli and Taris 2014).
  • Does not restrict itself to specific job demands and job resources
  • Assumes that any demand and any resource may affect employee health and well-being.
  • Itsscope is much broader than other models such as the jobs demand control model and the effort reward imbalance model.
  • More flexible and can be tailored to a wider variety of work settings.
  • Used to understand organizational issues that contribute to employee wellbeing, health and motivation.

(Schaufeli and Taris 2014).

  • Job demands may relate differently to specific outcome variables.
  • specifies what kind personal and job characteristics lead to a particular psychological states as well as outcome but does not indicate why this would be so.
  • The conceptual difference between job demands and job resources is not as clear- cut as it may seem at first glance.
  • Proposes straightforward unidirectional causal relations among resources, demands and outcomes but other studies have demonstrated reciprocal causation.

(Schaufeli and Taris 2014).

 

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